Of particular interest are Tanjore paintings, murals rendered on glass and sometimes embellished with semi-precious stones. The magnificent Shiva temple of Thanjavur, completed around 1009, is a fitting memorial to the material achievements of the time of Rajaraja. There was a fully developed secretariat to oversee the functioning of Central administration. The Chola Empire, though not as strong as between 850–1150, was still largely territorially intact under Rajaraja Chola II (1146–1175) a fact attested by the construction and completion of the third grand Chola architectural marvel, the chariot-shaped Airavatesvara Temple at Dharasuram on the outskirts of modern Kumbakonam. The earliest datable references to this Tamil dynasty are in inscriptions from the 3rd Scholars generally agree that this literature belongs to the late centuries before the common era and the early centuries of the common era. [66] Cholas always successfully controlled the Chalukyas in the western Deccan by defeating them in war and levying tribute on them. It is believed that this dynasty was founded by Karikala. Uraiyur served as the early Chola capital, then medieval Cholas shifted to Thanjavur and later cholas king Rajendra Chola I moved the capital … [196] Jivaka-chintamani by Tirutakkatevar and Sulamani by Tolamoli are among notable works by non-Hindu authors. [205][page needed] He imports into his narration the colour and landscape of his own time; his description of Kosala is an idealised account of the features of the Chola country. [160] The Cholas, being in possession of parts of both the west and the east coasts of peninsular India, were at the forefront of these ventures. [212], The period was in particular significant for the development of Telugu literature under the patronage of the rulers. Completed around 1030, only two decades after the temple at Thanjavur and in the same style, the greater elaboration in its appearance attests the more affluent state of the Chola Empire under Rajendra. King: was the most important person in the Chola administration. [121] Particularly the famous Wootz steel, which has a long history in south India dating back to the period before the Christian era, seems also be used to produce weapons. Abhinava Dandi Ketana wrote Dasakumaracharitramu, Vijnaneswaramu and Andhra Bhashabhushanamu. There was more involvement of non-Brahmin elements in the temple administration. Although the main deity in the temple is Shiva there are also other deities prayed here, such as Durga, Surya and Vishnu, to name a few. The best known of these were the Manigramam and Ayyavole guilds who followed the conquering Chola armies. The Chola Navy (Tamil: சோழர் கடற்படை; Transliteration: Cōḻar kadatpadai) comprised the naval forces of the Chola Empire (4th Century BCE - 1279 CE), a Tamil thalassocratic empire of southern India, one of the longest-ruling dynasties in the world. This word often forms an integral part of early Chola names like Nedunkilli, Nalankilli and so on, but almost drops out of use in later times. They were not swayed by the rise of Buddhism and Jainism as were the kings of the Pallava and Pandya dynasties. [194], The revival of Hinduism from its nadir during the Kalabhras spurred the construction of numerous temples and these in turn generated Shaiva and Vaishnava devotional literature. Kaveripattam was its capital. The second Chola King, Aditya I, caused the demise of the Pallava dynasty and defeated the Pandyan dynasty of Madurai in 885, occupied large parts of the Kannada country, and had marital ties with the Western Ganga dynasty. The Chola school of art spread to Southeast Asia and influenced the architecture and art of Southeast Asia. [citation needed], Sandilyan, another popular Tamil novelist, wrote Kadal Pura in the 1960s. [239] The serialisation lasted for nearly five years and every week its publication was awaited with great interest. [146], The Chola queen Kundavai also established a hospital at Tanjavur and gave land for the perpetual maintenance of it. Tanjore’s teeming bazaars are known for their excellent crafts such as wood carving, metalware, and jewelry. The dynasty originated in the fertile valley of the Kaveri River, and spread along the Coromandel Coast and to Sri Lanka. [157], The Cholas excelled in foreign trade and maritime activity, extending their influence overseas to China and Southeast Asia. [174][175], According to the Malay chronicle Sejarah Melayu, the rulers of the Malacca sultanate claimed to be descendants of the kings of the Chola Empire. It played a significant role in linking the markets of China to the rest of the world. At the very greatest of the Chola dynasty capitals, over 1,200 years old, visit the Raja Raja Museum & Art Gallery noted for its collection of Chola bronzes cast through the lost wax process, and the Saraswati Mahal Library, one of the most important reference libraries. [106] There was an expansion of the administrative structure, particularly from the reign of Rajaraja Chola I onwards. [65] The Western Chalukyas mounted several unsuccessful attempts to engage the Chola emperors in war, and except for a brief occupation of Vengi territories between 1118–1126, all their other attempts ended in failure with successive Chola emperors routing the armies of the Chalukyas at various places in many wars. The Cholas are featured in the History of the World board game, produced by Avalon Hill. [161][162] The Tang dynasty of China, the Srivijaya empire under the Sailendras, and the Abbasid Kalifat at Baghdad were the main trading partners. [49], The Western Chalukya Empire under Satyashraya and Someshvara I tried to wriggle out of Chola domination from time to time, primarily due to the Chola influence in the Vengi kingdom. Their reign was ended by Vijayalaya chola who captured Thanjavur from Ilango Mutharaiyar between 848-851 CE. The temple of Gangaikondacholisvaram at Gangaikondacholapuram, the creation of Rajendra Chola, was intended to excel its predecessor. A commonly held view is that Chola is, like Chera and Pandya, the name of the ruling family or clan of immemorial antiquity. Chola dynasty (Tamil:சோழர்) was a Tamil dynasty which was one of the longest-ruling dynasties in southern India. [163], Some credit for the emergence of a world market must also go to the dynasty. [122] The army consisted of people from different castes but the warriors of the Kaikolar and Vellalar castes played a prominent role. [18] Cholas are mentioned in the Pillars of Ashoka (inscribed 273 BCE–232 BCE) inscriptions, where they are mentioned among the kingdoms which, though not subject to Ashoka, were on friendly terms with him.[c]. [217] A record of Virarajendra Chola's reign relates to the maintenance of a school in the Jananamandapa within the temple for the study of the Vedas, Sastras, Grammar, and Rupavatara, as well as a hostel for students. This work is in a sense a national epic of the Tamil people because it treats of the lives of the saints who lived in all parts of Tamil Nadu and belonged to all classes of society, men and women, high and low, educated and uneducated. The river, which is also known as the Ponni (Golden) river, had a special place in the culture of Cholas. The Chola rulers issued their coins in gold, silver and copper. At the top of this economic pyramid were the elite merchant groups (samayam) who organised and dominated the regions international maritime trade. [117][118] According to the ancient Tamil text Silappadikaram, the Tamil kings defended their forts with catapults that threw stones, huge cauldrons of boiling water or molten lead, and hooks, chains and traps. They established educational institutions and hospitals around the temple, enhanced the beneficial aspects of the role of the temple, and projected the royalty as a very powerful and genial presence. The history of the Cholas falls into four periods: the Early Cholas of the Sangam literature, the interregnum between the fall of the Sangam Cholas and the rise of the Imperial medieval Cholas under Vijayalaya (c. 848), the dynasty of Vijayalaya, and finally the Later Chola dynasty of Kulothunga Chola I from the third quarter of the 11th century. Besides the landowners, there were others dependent on agriculture. Kalki had used the confusion in the succession to the Chola throne after the demise of Parantaka Chola II. Although the invasion was not followed by direct Cholan occupation and the region was unchanged geographically, there were huge consequences in trade. Also known as the 'Cola' dynasty, Chola dynasty is a famous South Indian dynasty which ruled for the longest period of time. [186] The maturity and grandeur to which the Chola architecture had evolved found expression in the two temples of Thanjavur and Gangaikondacholapuram. [139][140] The Vellalar community was the dominant secular aristocratic caste under the Chola rulers, providing the courtiers, most of the army officers, the lower ranks of the bureaucracy and the upper layer of the peasantry. It was one of the three main kingdoms of the ancient Tamil country.Their early capitals were Urayur and Kaveripattinam.Along with Pandyas and Cheras, Chola history goes back to the period where written records were scarce. [78] Virarajendra Chola's son, Athirajendra Chola, was assassinated in a civil disturbance in 1070, and Kulothunga Chola I, the son of Ammanga Devi and Rajaraja Narendra, ascended the Chola throne. Chola economy Land revenue and trade tax were the main source of income. [6] The Chola kings were avid builders and envisioned the temples in their kingdoms not only as places of worship but also as centers of economic activity. The Chola admirals commanded much respect and prestige. [134] The weavers had their own residential sector in all towns. The last Chalukya king's territories did not even include the erstwhile Chalukyan capitals Badami, Manyakheta or Kalyani. [143] The prosperity of an agricultural country depends to a large extent on the facilities provided for irrigation. [41][43], Around the 7th century, a Chola kingdom flourished in present-day Andhra Pradesh. [109][110][111] A number of kurrams constituted a valanadu. [6] The power of the new empire was proclaimed to the eastern world by the expedition to the Ganges which Rajendra Chola I undertook and by naval raids on cities of the city-state of Srivijaya, as well as by the repeated embassies to China. All authority rested in his hands. Details of the Pandyan civil war and the role played by the Cholas and Sinhalas, are present in the Mahavamsa as well as the Pallavarayanpettai Inscriptions. Main image picture credits: Tanjavur Palace Devasthanam. Chola administration and territorial integrity until the rule of Kulothunga Chola III was stable and very prosperous up to 1215, but during his rule itself, the decline of the Chola power started following his defeat by Maravarman Sundara Pandiyan II in 1215–16. The real founder of the Chola dynasty of Tanjore wasVijayalaya, a feudatory of the Pallavas. [226] However, according to "Koil Olugu" (temple records) of the Srirangam temple, Kulottunga Chola II was the son of Krimikanta Chola. Tamil traders encroached on the Srivijayan realm traditionally controlled by Malay traders and the Tamil guilds' influence increased on the Malay Peninsula and north coast of Sumatra. Archaeological News Much of Tamil classical literature and the greater Tamil architectural monuments belong to the Sangam period, which also saw a revival of Shaivism (worship of the god Shiva) and the development of southern Vaishnavism (worship of the god Vishnu). [159] The south Indian guilds played a major role in interregional and overseas trade. Historic records exist thereafter, including inscriptions on temples. Land revenue and trade tax were the main source of income. The Cholas also fought regular wars with the Eastern Gangas of Kalinga, protected Vengi though it remained largely independent under Chola control, and had domination of the entire eastern coast with their feudatories the Telugu Cholas, Velananti Cholas, Renandu Cholas etc. Other famous lakes of this period are Madurantakam, Sundra-cholapereri, Kundavai-Pereri (after a Chola queen). [84][93] However, only the Chola dynasty in India was extinguished but it survived elsewhere. Around it is four temples and several pavilions, along with devotees who bathe in its sacred waters. He integrated his empire into a tight administrative grid under royal control, and at the same time strengthened local self-government. One of the Three Crowned Kings (dynasties) of Tamilakam, "Chola" redirects here. The template for these and future temples was formulated by Aditya I and Parantaka. [96] These two towns became hubs of trade and commerce and attracted many religious faiths, including Buddhism. [172], The Chola conquest of Kadaram (Kedah) and Srivijaya, and their continued commercial contacts with the Chinese Empire, enabled them to influence the local cultures. He took over the Tanjore kingdom in the 8th century and led to the rise of the mighty Cholas by defeating the Pallavas. The Chola kings built temples and endowed them with great wealth. A martial art called Silambam was patronised by the Chola rulers. [40][f] The Cholas continued to rule over a diminished territory in the neighbourhood of Uraiyur, but only in a minor capacity. [214][215] However, relatively few Vaishnavite works were composed during the Later Chola period, possibly because of the rulers' apparent animosity towards them. [21] In Tamil lexicon Chola means Soazhi or Saei denoting a newly formed kingdom, in the lines of Pandya or the old country. A building of grand dimensions and a marvel of engineering, the temple is one of the grandest sights anywhere in India and is a testimony to the Cholas designs of empire, statecraft and the religious fervour of the land. [192][m], The Imperial Chola era was the golden age of Tamil culture, marked by the importance of literature. A Chola record gives their rationale for engagement in foreign trade: "Make the merchants of distant foreign countries who import elephants and good horses attach to yourself by providing them with villages and decent dwellings in the city, by affording them daily audience, presents and allowing them profits. [171] Monumental architecture in the form of majestic temples and sculpture in stone and bronze reached a finesse never before achieved in India. The Interim Chola Dynasty went to its top during the rule Vijayalaya between 848 AD-1070 AD when he crushed Pallavas who were enjoyed battling with the Pandyas and made Thanjavur as the capital. [180][181][182] The Chola temple architecture has been appreciated for its magnificence as well as delicate workmanship, ostensibly following the rich traditions of the past bequeathed to them by the Pallava Dynasty. p.15, The State at War in South Asia by Pradeep Barua p.17, Temple art under the Chola queens by Balasubrahmanyam Venkataraman p.72, Buddhism, Diplomacy, and Trade: The Realignment of Sino-Indian Relations by Tansen Sen p.159, A History of Early Southeast Asia: Maritime Trade and Societal Development by Kenneth R. Hall, Aryatarangini, the Saga of the Indo-Aryans, by A. Kalyanaraman p.158, India and Malaya Through the Ages: by S. Durai Raja Singam, sfnp error: no target: CITEREFIsmail1988 (, Relationship of the Cholas with the Chinese, Looking for the Prehispanic Filipino: and other essays in Philippine history, "The Telugu Cholas of Konidena (A.D. 1050-1300) [Part 1]", UNESCO World Heritage sites – Chola temples, South-East Asia campaign of Rajendra Chola I, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Chola_dynasty&oldid=994201492, 1st-millennium BC establishments in India, States and territories disestablished in 1279, States and territories established in the 4th century BC, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2015, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2016, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from April 2015, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from April 2015, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from April 2015, Articles with incomplete citations from April 2015, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, "Empire" as a description of foreign policy, This page was last edited on 14 December 2020, at 15:58. Chola dynasty: bloggers2018219 Uncategorized December 31, 2018 December 31, 2018 1 Minute Chola dynasty was one of the longest- ruling dynasties in history.The capital of early cholas are Poompuhar, Urayur,Tiruvarur. Driving into the interior, the next stop is at Gangaikondacholapuram, another of the erstwhile Chola dynasty capitals from the 11th century CE, commemorating a military quest that reached the Ganges and brought back pots of sacred water. There were also local organisations of merchants called "nagaram" in big centres of trade like Kanchipuram and Mamallapuram. [242] More recently, Balakumaran wrote the novel Udaiyar, which is based on the circumstances surrounding Rajaraja Chola's construction of the Brihadisvara Temple in Thanjavur. Inscriptions of 890 refer to his contributions to the construction of the Ranganatha Temple at Srirangapatnam in the country of the Western Gangas, who were both his feudatories and had connections by marriage with him. Majumdar (contains no mention of Maldives), Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture by John Bowman p.401. [70], On the other hand, throughout the period from 1150–1280, the staunchest opponents of the Cholas were Pandya princes who tried to win independence for their traditional territories. The main source for the available information of the early Cholas is the early Tamil literature of the Sangam Period. It served as the capital city for a span of 250 years. Kumbakonam’s holy heritage is heightened by its status as a cultural redoubt of the Tamils, as well as a center for commerce and crafts. The Indianized kingdom flourished until its eventual conquest by Conquistador Miguel Lopez de Legaspi, who with his Spanish and Latino soldiers had sailed to the Philippines from Mexico. The annotator Parimelazhagar said: "The charity of people with ancient lineage (such as the Cholas, the Pandyas and the Cheras) are forever generous in spite of their reduced means". 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